- Area of application: Internationale
- Type: Protocol
In 1985, a "hole" was discovered in the ozone layer above the Antarctic and this discovery caught the attention of the international community. In that same year, the harmful effects of certain substances on the ozone layer (of chlorofuorocarbons in particular) were officially recognised for the first time by the Vienna Convention.
The Vienna Convention was signed on March 22nd, 1985, by 28 countries of the European Community but it included no sanctions and it presumed that other protocols would complete the fight later.
And so it was with this objective that on September 16th, 1987, a protocol relating to substances that deplete the ozone layer was signed in Montreal and took effect in 1989.
The Montreal protocol provides in particular for the gradual elimination of CFCs (chlorfluorocarbons).
Today, CFCs are banned except for very small quantities considered essential for some very specific applications.
The Montreal Protocol was eventually to be reinforced by four amendments:
London 1990, Copenhagen 1992, Montreal 1997 and Beijing 1999.
As of today, more than 190 countries have signed the Montreal Protocol.
>>Download Montreal Protocol (PDF)