Data rozpoczęcia
Data zakończenia

termin: 19-21.04.2007 miejsce: Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia

Because of the ozone depletion the (H)CFC refrigerants are being phased out thanks to the Montreal Protocol. Since 1990, new alternative refrigerants are being placed on the market; these include HFCs which are ozone friendly, but these synthetic refrigerants are greenhouse gases that are targeted by the Kyoto Protocol. Several European countries decided to phase out the HFCs or introduced very high taxes; there are hot debates in European Parliament on F-gas legislation.
Depending on the applications, many refrigeration experts prefer the use of natural refrigerants such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons. Ammonia has already well-proven in practice: it has been used for over 130 years.
According to the type of application, the size of the system, the cooling temperature, the environment, safety and other considerations, there is no single criterion governing the choice of a refrigerant. The task of the engineers is to find ways enabling more of the above-mentioned criteria to be satisfied. One is very clear: by using more ammonia refrigeration, we are employing environmentally friendly technology.
What is the right direction? It is difficult to decide because there are many groups with varying interests: chemical companies, manufacturers of equipment based on halocarbon refrigerants and on ammonia technology, distributors, users, environmental organizations, politicians and the public.
Therefore, academics and experts from the industrial and commercial sectors and institutions are kindly invited to participate on the conference which will contribute to knowledge on new, improved technologies and to exchange experiences in ammonia refrigeration and related themes.
Conference website:
Press release 30.04.2007:

IIR International Conference

Ammonia Refrigeration Technology - for Today and Tomorrow

April 19-21, 2007, Ohrid, Macedonia
This international conference supported by the International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) was organized second time by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Skopje University, Macedonia. Ohrid is a beautiful place and with a wonderful nature, in this case contributing to keeping harmony using natural refrigerants. One curiosity: Prof. Gustav Lorentzen spent a part of his life in Macedonia in 1960 working as an UN expert in refrigeration factory. Ohrid was his favour place as you can see on the enclosed photo (Fot. 1).

Fot. 1
The conference was opened by the IIR Director Mr. Didier Coulomb and keynote lectures were presented from:
Lambert Kuijpers (Netherlands): "Aspects involved in the replacement of refrigerants by low GWP gases"
Anders Lindborg (Sweden): "The Future for Ammonia as a Refrigerant"
Andy Pearson (UK): "Extending the Life of Ammonia Systems"
Predrag Hrnjak (USA): "Heat Transfer Issues in NH3 and CO2"
Andy Pearson (UK): "Extending the Life of Ammonia Systems"
Bjorn Palm (Sweden): "Ammonia in Small Refrigeration and Heat Pump Systems"
Zahid Ayub (USA): "Current and Future Prospects of Enhanced Heat Transfer in Ammonia Systems"
It was interesting to note that that the keynote addresses tended to reinforce each other in the message that there is still a lot to learn about ammonia refrigeration and that system improvements will continue to be made (Forbes Pearson).
There were many interesting presentations about the current and future use of ammonia: low charge technology, plate type heat exchangers and improvement of energy efficiency; applications with lower size capacity; ammonia and CO2 in cascade systems; various applications of ammonia refrigeration in cold stores, agro-food industries, supermarkets, air-conditioning systems and heat pumps.
The conference included a valuable workshop about operation, maintenance, and trouble shootings with presentation and moderation by:
Brian Marriott, USA, "Designing for Operation of Ammonia Systems" and
Gert Koster, Netherlands, "Maintenance of Refrigerating Plants: Costs or Savings?"
They presented a wealth of experience, gathered over many years and their information was amplified by contributions from experienced engineers in the audience.
Furthermore, the organizer has proposed an initiative to establishing a Natural Refrigerants Fund. The aim is promotion and implementation of technologies with natural refrigerants in developing countries together with developed countries. Many participants agreed for a necessity of existing such fund and appeal international organizations, institutions and companies to undertake some activities on this initia-tive.
It is good to learn that there were 105 participants from 30 countries and that 39 papers were presented. After this successful organized conference, many participants suggest to organize a next one in 2009. You can find more information on the conference website: final programme, all abstracts, list of partici-pants and rich photo gallery.
President of Organizing Committee,
Prof. Dr. Risto Ciconkov - Conference web site